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Tsar Nicholas II Sekeluarga Dibunuh Kejam, Berakhirnya Empayar Rusia

27-11-2020 02:53 AM| Komen: 73

Kematian Tsar Nicholas II bersama seluruh keluarganya pada 1918 menandakan berakhirnya Empayar Rusia yang diterajui House of Romanov selama 304 tahun.

Selepas kepimpinan Rusia jatuh ke tangan tentera Bolshevik susulan Revolusi Februari 1917, Nicholas bersama isterinya Alexandria Fyodorovna serta anak-anak mereka - Olga, Maria, Tatiana, Anastasia dan Alexei - hidup dalam tahanan bermula di Tsarskoye Selo, Tobolsk dan akhir sekali di sebuah rumah dinamakan Ipatiev House di Yekaterinburg.

Pada jam 2 pagi 17 April 1918, seluruh keluarga dikejutkan dari tidur, dibawa ke bilik bawah tanah lalu ditembak dan ditikam dengan bayonet sehingga mati. 

Mayat mereka dibawa ke hutan berdekatan, dibakar, direndam ke dalam asid dan selebihnya ditanam di dalam lubang bekas lombong lama.

Hanya pada 1979, sisa mayat mereka mula ditemui satu demi satu dan dikebumikan dalam upacara penuh penghormatan.

Sumber :

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Komen: 73

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Quote LaRRa. 28-12-2020 02:36 AM
winamp05 replied at 27-12-2020 05:16 PM
baiklah nek. Anak cucu terima dengan hati terbuka ye nek.

Well well well..look who's here tonite..hello mydear
They talk about you a lot out there n i just investigate who you are

Lain-lain Komen

Quote sikatkutu 27-11-2020 03:09 AM
kejamnya sampai budak pun ko bunuh.. tak boleh bayangkan tengah pening2 lalat orang kejut acu senapang. lepas tu suruh beratur....tembak
Quote Lengkong 27-11-2020 07:20 AM
kerana kuasa semua benda kejam manusia sanggup buat

Quote buragazz 27-11-2020 07:25 AM
Movie anatasia tu (Animated) pasal keluarga ni ke.. sampai sekarang aku suka tgk...
Quote Tinot7 27-11-2020 07:30 AM
Mayat depa dijumpai pada 1979 tapi tak disahkan sehinggalah 1991 gitu. Dalam tempoh masa tu, ada yg ngaku sbg Grand Duchess Anastasia, anak kpd tzar ni.

Anna Anderson(16 December 1896C 12 February 1984) was the best known ofseveral impostorswho claimed to beGrand Duchess Anastasia of Russia.[1]Anastasia, the youngest daughter of the last Tsar and Tsarina of Russia,Nicholas IIandAlexandra, wasmurdered along with her parents and siblingson 17 July 1918 bycommunistrevolutionaries inYekaterinburg,Russia, but the location of her body was unknown until 2007.[2][3]

In 1920, Anderson was institutionalized in a mental hospital after a suicide attempt inBerlin. At first, she went by the nameFrulein Unbekannt(German for Miss Unknown) as she refused to reveal her identity.[4]Later, she used the name Tschaikovsky and then Anderson. In March 1922, claims that Anderson was aRussian grand duchessfirst received public attention. Most members of Grand Duchess Anastasia's family and those who had known her, including court tutorPierre Gilliard, said Anderson was an impostor but others were convinced she was Anastasia. In 1927, a private investigation funded by the Tsarina's brother,Ernest Louis, Grand Duke of Hesse, identified Anderson asFranziska Schanzkowska, a Polish factory worker with a history of mental illness. After a lawsuit lasting many years, the German courts ruled that Anderson had failed to prove she was Anastasia, but through media coverage, her claim gained notoriety.[5]

Between 1922 and 1968, Anderson lived in Germany and the United States with various supporters and in nursing homes and sanatoria, including at least one asylum. She emigrated to the United States in 1968. Shortly before the expiration of her visa she married history professor Jack Manahan, who was later characterized as "probablyCharlottesville's best-loved eccentric".[6]Upon her death in 1984, Anderson's body was cremated, and her ashes were buried in the churchyard atCastle Seeon, Germany.

After thecollapse of communismin theSoviet Union, the locations of the bodies of the Tsar, Tsarina, and all five of their children were revealed. Multiple laboratories in different countries confirmed their identity throughDNA testing.[2]DNA tests on a lock of Anderson's hair and surviving medical samples of her tissue showed that her DNA did not match that of the Romanov remains or that of living relatives of the Romanovs.[7]Instead, Anderson'smitochondrial DNAmatched that of Karl Maucher, a great-nephew of Franziska Schanzkowska.[8]Most scientists, historians and journalists who have discussed the case accept that Anderson and Schanzkowska were the same person.[9]

How it began:
On 27 February 1920,[10]a young woman attempted to commit suicide inBerlinby jumping off theBendlerstrassebridge into theLandwehrkanal. She was rescued by a police sergeant and was admitted to theElisabeth HospitalonLtzowstrasse. As she was without papers and refused to identify herself, she was admitted asFrulein Unbekannt("Miss Unknown") to a mental hospital in Dalldorf (nowWittenau, inReinickendorf), where she remained for the next two years.[4]The unknown patient had scars on her head and body[11]and spoke German with an accent described as "Russian" by medical staff.[12]

In early 1922, Clara Peuthert, a fellow psychiatric patient, claimed that the unknown woman wasGrand Duchess Tatiana of Russia, one of the four daughters ofTsar Nicholas II.[13]On her release, Peuthert toldRussian migrCaptainNicholas von Schwabethat she had seen Tatiana at Dalldorf.[14]Schwabe visited the asylum and accepted the woman as Tatiana.[15]Schwabe persuaded other migrs to visit the unknown woman, includingZinaida Tolstoy, a friend ofTsarina Alexandra. EventuallyBaroness Sophie Buxhoeveden, a formerlady-in-waitingto the Tsarina, visited the asylum with Tolstoy. On seeing the woman, Buxhoeveden declared "She's too short for Tatiana,"[16]and left convinced the woman was not a Russian grand duchess.[17]A few days later, the unknown woman noted, "I did not say I was Tatiana."[18]

A nurse at Dalldorf, Thea Malinovsky, claimed years after the patient's release from the asylum that the woman had told her she was another daughter of the Tsar,Anastasia, in the autumn of 1921.[19]However, the patient herself could not recall the incident.[20]Her biographers either ignore Malinovsky's claim,[21]or weave it into their narrative.[22]

Claiming to be Anastasia
By May 1922, the woman was believed by Peuthert, Schwabe, and Tolstoy to be Anastasia, although Buxhoeveden said there was no resemblance.[23]Nevertheless, the woman was taken out of the asylum and given a room in the Berlin home of Baron Arthur von Kleist, a Russian migr who had been a police chief inRussian Polandbefore the fall of the Tsar. The Berlin policeman who handled the case, Detective Inspector Franz Grnberg, thought that Kleist "may have had ulterior motives, as was hinted at in migr circles: if the old conditions should ever be restored in Russia, he hoped for great advancement from having looked after the young woman."[24]

She began calling herself Anna Tschaikovsky,[25]choosing "Anna" as a short form of "Anastasia",[26]although Peuthert "described her everywhere as Anastasia".[27]Tschaikovsky stayed in the houses of acquaintances, including Kleist, Peuthert, a poor working-class family called Bachmann, and at Inspector Grnberg's estate at Funkenmhle, nearZossen.[28]At Funkenmhle, Grnberg arranged for the Tsarina's sister,Princess Irene of Hesse and by Rhine, to meet Tschaikovsky, but Irene did not recognize her.[29]Grnberg also arranged a visit fromCrown Princess Cecilie of Prussia, but Tschaikovsky refused to speak to her, and Cecilie was left perplexed by the encounter.[30]Later, in the 1950s, Cecilie signed a declaration that Tschaikovsky was Anastasia,[31]but Cecilie's family disputed her statement and implied that she was suffering from dementia.[32]

By 1925, Tschaikovsky had developed a tuberculous infection of her arm, and she was placed in a succession of hospitals for treatment. Sick and near death, she suffered significant loss of weight.[33]She was visited by the Tsarina's groom of the chamberAlexei Volkov; Anastasia's tutorPierre Gilliard; his wife, Shura, who had been Anastasia's nursemaid; and the Tsar's sister,Grand Duchess Olga. Although they expressed sympathy, if only for Tschaikovsky's illness, and made no immediate public declarations, eventually they all denied she was Anastasia.[34]In March 1926, she convalesced inLuganowithHarriet von Rathlefat the expense of Grand Duchess Anastasia's great-uncle,Prince Valdemar of Denmark. Valdemar was willing to offer Tschaikovsky material assistance, through the Danish ambassador to Germany,Herluf Zahle, while her identity was investigated.[35]To allow her to travel, the Berlin Aliens Office issued her with a temporary certificate of identity as "Anastasia Tschaikovsky", with Grand Duchess Anastasia's personal details.[36]After a quarrel with Rathlef, Tschaikovsky was moved to the Stillachhaus Sanatorium atOberstdorfin theBavarian Alpsin June 1926, and Rathlef returned to Berlin.[37]

At Oberstdorf, Tschaikovsky was visited by Tatiana Melnik,neBotkin. Melnik was the niece of Serge Botkin, the head of the Russian refugee office in Berlin, and the daughter of the imperial family's personal physician, Dr.Eugene Botkin, who had been murdered by the communists alongside the Tsar's family in 1918. Tatiana Melnik had met Grand Duchess Anastasia as a child and had last spoken to her in February 1917.[38]To Melnik, Tschaikovsky looked like Anastasia, even though "the mouth has changed and coarsened noticeably, and because the face is so lean, her nose looks bigger than it was."[39]In a letter, Melnik wrote: "Her attitude is childlike, and altogether she cannot be reckoned with as a responsible adult, but must be led and directed like a child. She has not only forgotten languages, but has n general lost the power of accurate narration... even the simplest stories she tells incoherently and incorrectly; they are really only words strung together in impossibly ungrammatical German... Her defect is obviously in her memory and eyesight."[40]Melnik declared that Tschaikovsky was Anastasia, and supposed that any inability on her part to remember events and her refusal to speak Russian was caused by her impaired physical and psychological state.[41]Either inadvertently through a sincere desire to "aid the patient's weak memory"[42]or as part of a deliberate charade,[43]Melnik coached Tschaikovsky with details of life in the imperial family.

Castle Seeon 1927
In 1927, under pressure from his family, Valdemar decided against providing Tschaikovsky with any further financial support, and the funds from Denmark were cut off.[44]Duke George of Leuchtenberg, a distant relative of the Tsar, gave her a home atCastle Seeon.[45]The Tsarina's brother,Ernest Louis, Grand Duke of Hesse, hired a private detective, Martin Knopf, to investigate the claims that Tschaikovsky was Anastasia.[46]

During her stay at Castle Seeon, Knopf reported that Tschaikovsky was actually a Polish factory worker called Franziska Schanzkowska.[47]Schanzkowska had worked in a munitions factory duringWorld War Iwhen, shortly after her fianc had been killed at the front, a grenade fell out of her hand and exploded. She had been injured in the head, and a foreman was killed in front of her.[48]She became apathetic and depressed, was declared insane on 19 September 1916,[49]and spent time in two lunatic asylums.[50]In early 1920, she was reported missing from her Berlin lodgings, and since then had not been seen or heard from by her family.[51]In May 1927, Franziska's brother Felix Schanzkowski was introduced to Tschaikovsky at a local inn inWasserburgnear Castle Seeon. Leuchtenberg's son, Dmitri, was completely certain that Tschaikovsky was an impostor and that she was recognized by Felix as his sister,[52]but Leuchtenberg's daughter, Natalie, remained convinced of Tschaikovsky's authenticity.[53]Leuchtenberg himself was ambivalent.[54]According to one account, initially Felix declared that Tschaikovsky was his sister Franziska,[55]but the affidavit he signed spoke only of a "strong resemblance", highlighted physical differences, and said she did not recognize him.[56]Years later, Felix's family said that he knew Tschaikovsky was his sister, but he had chosen to leave her to her new life, which was far more comfortable than any alternative.[57]

Visitors to Seeon includedPrince Felix Yusupov, husband ofPrincess Irina Alexandrovna of Russia, who wrote, "I claim categorically that she is not Anastasia Nicolaievna, but just an adventuress, a sick hysteric and a frightful playactress.I simply cannot understand how anyone can be in doubt of this. If you had seen her, I amconvincedthat you would recoil in horror at the thought that this frightful creature could be a daughter of our Tsar."[58]Other visitors, however, such as Felix Dassel, an officer whom Anastasia had visited in hospital during 1916, andGleb Botkin, who had known Anastasia as a child and was Tatiana Melnik's brother, were convinced that Tschaikovsky was genuine.[59]

US 1928-1931
By 1928, Tschaikovsky's claim had received interest and attention in the United States, where Gleb Botkin had published articles in support of her cause.[60]Botkin's publicity caught the attention of a distant cousin of Anastasia's,Xenia Leeds, a former Russian princess who had married a wealthy American industrialist.[61]Botkin and Leeds arranged for Tschaikovsky to travel to the United States on board the linerBerengariaat Leeds's expense.[62]On the journey from Seeon to the States, Tschaikovsky stopped at Paris, where she metGrand Duke Andrei Vladimirovich of Russia, the Tsar's cousin, who believed her to be Anastasia.[63]For six months Tschaikovsky lived at the estate of the Leeds family inOyster Bay, New York.[64]

As the tenth anniversary of the Tsar's execution approached in July 1928, Botkin retained a lawyer, Edward Fallows, to oversee legal moves to obtain any of the Tsar's estate outside of theSoviet Union. As the death of the Tsar had never been proved, the estate could only be released to relatives ten years after the supposed date of his death.[65]Fallows set up a company, called the Grandanor Corporation (an acronym of Grand Duchess Anastasia of Russia), which sought to raise funds by selling shares in any prospective estate.[66]Tschaikovsky claimed that the Tsar had deposited money abroad, which fed unsubstantiated rumors of a large Romanov fortune in England.[67]The surviving relatives of the Romanovs accused Botkin and Fallows of fortune hunting, and Botkin accused them of trying to defraud "Anastasia" out of her inheritance.[68]Except for a relatively small deposit in Germany, distributed to the Tsar's recognized relations, no money was ever found.[69]After a quarrel, possibly over Tschaikovsky's claim to the estate (but not over her claim to be Anastasia),[70]Tschaikovsky moved out of the Leeds' mansion, and the pianistSergei Rachmaninoffarranged for her to live at theGarden City HotelinHempstead, New York, and later in a small cottage. To avoid the press, she was booked in as Mrs. Anderson, the name by which she was subsequently known.[71]In October 1928, after the death of the Tsar's mother, the Dowager EmpressMarie, the 12 nearest relations of the Tsar met at Marie's funeral and signed a declaration that denounced Anderson as an impostor.[72]The Copenhagen Statement, as it would come to be known, explained: "Our sense of duty compels us to state that the story is only a fairy tale. The memory of our dear departed would be tarnished if we allowed this fantastic story to spread and gain any credence."[73]Gleb Botkin answered with a public letter toGrand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna of Russia, which referred to the family as "greedy and unscrupulous" and claimed they were only denouncing Anderson for money.[74]

From early 1929 Anderson lived with Annie Burr Jennings, a wealthyPark Avenuespinster happy to host someone she supposed to be a daughter of the Tsar.[75]For eighteen months, Anderson was the toast of New York City society.[76]Then a pattern of self-destructive behavior began that culminated in her throwing tantrums, killing her pet parakeet,[77]and on one occasion running around naked on the roof.[78]On 24 July 1930, Judge Peter Schmuck of theNew York Supreme Courtsigned an order committing her to a mental hospital.[79]Before she could be taken away, Anderson locked herself in her room, and the door was broken in with an axe. She was forcibly taken to the Four Winds Sanatorium inWestchester County, New York, where she remained for slightly over a year.[80]In August 1931, Anderson returned to Germany accompanied by a private nurse in a locked cabin on the linerDeutschland.[81]Jennings paid for the voyage, the stay at the Westchester sanatorium, and an additional six months' care in the psychiatric wing of a nursing home atIltennearHanover.[82]On arrival at Ilten, Anderson was assessed as sane,[83]but as the room was prepaid, and she had nowhere else to go, she stayed on in a suite in the sanatorium grounds.[84]

Jerman 1931-1968
Anderson's return to Germany generated press interest, and drew more members of the German aristocracy to her cause.[85]She again lived itinerantly as a guest of her well-wishers.[86]In 1932, the British tabloidNews of the Worldpublished a sensational story accusing her of being a Romanian actress who was perpetrating a fraud.[87]Her lawyer, Fallows, filed suit for libel, but the lengthy case continued until the outbreak ofWorld War II, at which time the case was dismissed because Anderson was living in Germany, and German residents could not sue in enemy countries.[85]From 1938, lawyers acting for Anderson in Germany contested the distribution of the Tsar's estate to his recognized relations, and they in turn contested her identity.[88]The litigaton continued intermittently without resolution for decades;Lord Mountbattenfooted some of his German relations' legal bills against Anderson.[89]The protracted proceedings became the longest-running lawsuit in German history.[90]

Anderson had a final meeting with the Schanzkowski family in 1938. Gertrude Schanzkowska was insistent that Anderson was her sister, Franziska,[91]but theNazigovernment had arranged the meeting to determine Anderson's identity, and if accepted as Schanzkowska she would be imprisoned.[92]The Schanzkowski family refused to sign affidavits against her, and no further action was taken.[93]In 1939,World War IIbegan with Germany's attack on the western half ofPoland. In 1940, Edward Fallows died virtually destitute after wasting all his own money on trying to obtain the Tsar's non-existent fortune for the Grandanor Corporation.[94]Towards the end of the war, Anderson lived at Schloss Winterstein with Louise ofSaxe-Meiningen, in what became theSoviet occupation zone. In 1946, Prince Frederick ofSaxe-Altenburghelped her across the border toBad Liebenzellin theFrench occupation zone.[95]

Prince Frederick settled Anderson in a former army barracks in the small village of Unterlengenhardt, on the edge of theBlack Forest, where she became a sort of tourist attraction.[96]Lili Dehn, a friend of Tsarina Alexandra, visited her and acknowledged her as Anastasia,[97]but whenCharles Sydney Gibbes, English tutor to the imperial children, met Anderson he denounced her as a fraud.[98]In an affidavit, he swore "She in no way resembles the true Grand Duchess Anastasia that I had known... I am quite satisfied that she is an impostor."[99]She became a recluse, surrounded by cats, and her house began to decay.[100]In May 1968, Anderson was taken to a hospital atNeuenbrgafter being discovered semi-conscious in her cottage. In her absence, Prince Frederick cleaned up the property by order of the local board of health.[101]Her Irish Wolfhound and 60 cats were put to death.[102]Horrified by this, Anderson accepted her long-term supporterGleb Botkin's offer to move back to the United States.[103]

Akhirnya 1968-1984
Botkin was living in theuniversity townofCharlottesville, Virginia, and a local friend of his, history professor and genealogist John Eacott "Jack" Manahan, paid for Anderson's journey to the United States.[104]She entered the country on a six-month visitor's visa, and shortly before it was due to expire, Anderson married Manahan, who was 20 years her junior, in a civil ceremony on 23 December 1968. Botkin was best man.[105]Jack Manahan enjoyed this marriage of convenience,[106]and described himself as "Grand Duke-in-Waiting"[107]or "son-in-law to the Tsar".[108]The couple lived in separate bedrooms in a house on University Circle in Charlottesville, and also owned a farm nearScottsville.[109]Botkin died in December 1969.[110]In February of the following year, 1970, the lawsuits finally came to an end, with neither side able to establish Anderson's identity.[111]

Manahan and Anderson, now legally called Anastasia Manahan,[112]became well known in the Charlottesville area as eccentrics.[113]Though Jack Manahan was wealthy, they lived in squalor with large numbers of dogs and cats, and piles of garbage.[114]On 20 August 1979, Anderson was taken to Charlottesville'sMartha Jefferson Hospitalwith an intestinal obstruction. A gangrenous tumor and a length of intestine were removed by Dr. Richard Shrum.[115]

With both Manahan and Anderson in failing health, in November 1983, Anderson was institutionalized, and an attorney, William Preston, was appointed as her guardian by the localcircuit court.[116]A few days later, Manahan "kidnapped"[117]Anderson from the hospital, and for three days they drove around Virginia eating out of convenience stores. After a 13-state police alarm, they were found and Anderson was returned to a care facility.[118]In January she may have had a stroke, and on 12 February 1984, she died ofpneumonia.[119]She was cremated the same day, and her ashes were buried in the churchyard atCastle Seeonon 18 June 1984.[120]Manahan died on 22 March 1990.[6]

Genetic testing
In 1991, the bodies of TsarNicholas II, TsarinaAlexandra, and three of their daughters were exhumed from a mass grave nearYekaterinburg. They were identified on the basis of both skeletal analysis and DNA testing.[121]For example,mitochondrial DNAwas used to match maternal relations, and mitochondrial DNA from the female bones matched that ofPrince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, whose maternal grandmotherPrincess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhinewas a sister of Alexandra.[121]The bodies of TsarevichAlexeiand the remaining daughter were discovered in 2007. Repeated and independent DNA tests confirmed that the remains were the seven members of theRomanov family, and proved that none of the Tsar's four daughters survived theshooting of the Romanov family.[2][3]

A sample of Anderson's tissue, part of her intestine removed during her operation in 1979, had been stored atMartha Jefferson Hospital,Charlottesville, Virginia. Anderson's mitochondrial DNA was extracted from the sample and compared with that of the Romanovs and their relatives. It did not match that of the Duke of Edinburgh or that of the bones, confirming that Anderson was not related to the Romanovs. However, the sample matched DNA provided by Karl Maucher, a grandson of Franziska Schanzkowska's sister, Gertrude (Schanzkowska) Ellerik, indicating that Karl Maucher and Anna Anderson were maternally related and that Anderson was Schanzkowska.[122]Five years after the original testing was done, Dr. Terry Melton of the Department of Anthropology,Pennsylvania State University, stated that the DNA sequence tying Anderson to the Schanzkowski family was "still unique", though the database of DNA patterns at theArmed Forces DNA Identification Laboratoryhad grown much larger, leading to "increased confidence that Anderson was indeed Franziska Schanzkowska".[123]

Similarly, several strands of Anderson's hair, found inside an envelope in a book that had belonged to Anderson's husband, Jack Manahan, were also tested. Mitochondrial DNA from the hair matched Anderson's hospital sample and that of Schanzkowska's relative Karl Maucher, but not the Romanov remains or living relatives of the Romanovs.[124]

Quote Tinot7 27-11-2020 07:37 AM
Dari situ la kluar animated muvi, Anastasia.

Tapi sebenarnya org yg mengaku itu ada sakit...
Quote Tinot7 27-11-2020 07:41 AM
Edited by Tinot7 at 27-11-2020 06:47 PM

2 org anak yg terakhir dapat dijumpai pada tahun 2007. Nama bkn Anastasia, ye.

DNA Analysis Confirms Authenticity of Romanovs RemainsWill Russias fallen royal family finally receive a full burial from the Orthodox Church?

ByBrigit Katz

JULY 17, 2018

Today marks the 100th anniversary of the execution of Nicholas II and his family, an event that toppled Russias Romanov dynasty. Yesterday, as the country was preparing tocommemoratetheir deaths, Russian investigators announced that new DNA testing had confirmed that remains attributed to last tsar and his family are in fact authentica finding that may pave the way for the deceased royals to be buried with full rites by the Orthodox Church, according toAgence France-Presse.

The Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation, which is responsible for probing serious crimes, said DNA analysis confirmed the remains found belonged to the former Emperor Nicholas II, his family members and members of their entourage. As part of the new tests, investigators exhumed the body of Nicholas' father, Alexander III to prove that the two are related, and also took DNA samples from living members of the Romanov family, according to theMoscow Times.

The new findings are the latest development in a tangled dispute over the remains of the Romanovs, whose downfall was nigh after Nicholas II wasforced to abdicatethe throne in the midst of the Russian Revolution of 1917. Radical Bolsheviks took power and formed a provisional government, and the tsar, his wife, Alexandra and their five children were imprisoned in the city of Yekaterinburg. In 1918, civil war broke out between the communist governments Red Army and the anti-Bolshevik White Army. As the White Army advanced on Yekaterinburg, local authorities wereordered to prevent the rescueof the Romanovs, and in the early hours of July 17, the family was executed by firing squad. Those who remained alive after the bullets stopped flying werestabbedto death.

The Romanovs bodies were thrown down a mineshaft, only to be retrieved, burned and buried near a cart track. The remains of Nicholas, Alexandra and three of their daughters Anastasia, Olga and Tatianawere found in 1979, though the bodies were only exhumed in 1991 after the collapse of the Soviet Union, according to the AFP.As Tom Parfitt of theTimesreports, DNA testing carried out at the time confirmed that the remains were authentic.

Orthodox Church officials, however, contested these findings. In 1998, the remains that had been uncovered some 20 years earlier were interred in Saint Petersburg, but the Church refused to give them full burial rites. In 2007, archaeologists discovered the bones of two more individuals, whom they believed to be the missing Romanov children: Maria and Alexei, the tsars only son and the heir to the throne.

Their bones were also analyzed and scientists took the opportunity to repeat tests on the whole family using new technology, Parfitt writes. Evgeny Rogaev, a molecular geneticist, found there was one in a septillion chance that the remains thought to be of the tsar were not his.

Still, the Church refused to recognize the remains. The bones of Maria and Alexei have never been buried.

Church officials explained their recalcitrance by saying that they need to be extra sure of the validity of the remains, since the tsar and his family were canonized in 2000, reports Alec Luhn of theTelegraph.This means that the Romanovs bones are relicsholy objects worthy of veneration.

But politicsand conspiracy theoriesmay have also come into play. The AFP reports that the Church clergy felt sidelined by an investigation into the remains that took place under former Russian president Boris Yeltsin in the 1990s. In 2015, the Church ordered yet another investigation, but critics have accused Church officials of stalling the proceedings because they are reluctant to admit their mistakes in handling the remains. Last year, for instance, a Church commission involved in the probe floated the anti-Semitictheorythe Romanovs were killed as part of a Jewish ritual.

There is absolutely no reason to examine these absurd theories about the deaths and the veracity of the remains when we know the circumstances, and scientists have proved beyond doubt they are real, Viktor Aksyuchits, who fronted a state advisory group on the remains in the 1990s, tells theTimes Parfitt.

The latest DNA analysis is part of the criminal investigation ordered by the Church. According to the AFP, Church spokesman Vladimir Legoida said in a statement that officials will review the latest findings with attention. The Romanovs may finally receive a full Church burialthough it will not come in time for the centenary of their deaths.

Quote Tinot7 27-11-2020 07:45 AM
buragazz replied at 27-11-2020 07:25 AM
Movie anatasia tu (Animated) pasal keluarga ni ke.. sampai sekarang aku suka tgk...

Muvi tu inspired by impostor yg ngaku jadi Anastasia. Tapi muvi tu dibuat dgn cara yg best.
Quote sarah82 27-11-2020 09:43 AM
Pakcik OTTA dah buka thread lengkap tgg sejarah ni.. Tq
Quote manehnya 27-11-2020 10:10 AM
giler kejam
Quote c===8 27-11-2020 10:38 AM
kat netflix pun ada kisah ni
Quote buragazz 27-11-2020 12:02 PM
Tinot7 replied at 27-11-2020 07:45 AM
Muvi tu inspired by impostor yg ngaku jadi Anastasia. Tapi muvi tu dibuat dgn cara yg best.

Ooo.. kan masa sebelum dia kene tinggal tu kan si Rasputin datang membawa onar dan huru hara.. sebenarnya keluarga dia di bunuh kan..

aku suka watak Anastasia tu sebab suara Meg Ryan memang kena utk movie tu..
Quote Tinot7 27-11-2020 12:15 PM
buragazz replied at 27-11-2020 12:02 PM
Ooo.. kan masa sebelum dia kene tinggal tu kan si Rasputin datang membawa onar dan huru hara.. seb ...

citer asalnya, keluarga dia dan org2 yg terdekat, termasuk dia dikejutkan dari tidoq.. pastu kena bawak ke hutan dan kena tembak. siapa masih bernapas, kena tikam sampai mati... pastu kena campak body kat tmpt lain.. 2 body tak dijumpai sehingga tahun 2007.

jadi sorang minah ni yg sakit, ngaku dia anastasia drp keluarga diraja. masa tu mmg heboh sbb semua org nak tau mmg betui ka dak sbb depa tak tau lagi apa yg dah berlaku kpd keluarga diraja tu.. lama2 diketahui bkn tapi dah ramai yg nak tumpang glamer related dgn keluarga diraja russia. citer anastasia tu berdasarkan re-enactment of what could have possibly happened if one had escaped. berdasarkan possibility minah ni sebenarnya grand duchess anastasia. citer kartun tu mmg khayalan semata2 sbb real story dia sgt tragis. tapi pada jaman itu, mmg org tgh marah sbb depa sengsara manakala golongan diraja ni dok syok kat dlm istana.

iols suke juga citer kartun tu walopon bkn fakta sejarah sebenar. tapi selepas tau citer sebenar, feeling jadi lain sbb kita tau pengakhiran depa sgt menyedihkan.
Quote buragazz 27-11-2020 12:18 PM
Tinot7 replied at 27-11-2020 12:15 PM
citer asalnya, keluarga dia dan org2 yg terdekat, termasuk dia dikejutkan dari tidoq.. pastu kena  ...

Tq diatas pencerahan Tinot...
Quote Tinot7 27-11-2020 12:24 PM
buragazz replied at 27-11-2020 12:18 PM
Tq diatas pencerahan Tinot...

you are welcome buragazz
Quote hakikat_hidup 27-11-2020 03:39 PM
kalau bace cara pembunuhan tu mmg zalim dan tragis terutama anak-anak perempuan dorg. Nicholas dgn isteri tu mati terus on the spot lps kene tembak xsilap

kesian ke anak-anak dorg mati dorg akn lambat and terseksa. kene tusuk berkali2, kene tembak berkali2. salah seorang ank perempuan tu masih nyawa2 ikan sempat menangis tahan lagi sebelum dorg nak tanam, belum mati lagi sepenuhnye..bygkan tempoh seksa sebelum mati sepenuhnye
Quote Tinot7 27-11-2020 05:43 PM
sarah82 replied at 27-11-2020 09:43 AM
Pakcik OTTA dah buka thread lengkap tgg sejarah ni.. Tq

yg buka benang ni bknnya poremer... iols speku, benang ni takkan kena tutup...
Quote sarah82 27-11-2020 05:47 PM
Tinot7 replied at 27-11-2020 05:43 PM
yg buka benang ni bknnya poremer... iols speku, benang ni takkan kena tutup...

yg buka benang ni pun copy paste dari blog...dan penulis tu tak sedetail pakcik Otto...pakcik Otto tu punya suka sejarah sampai dia buat kajian dulu baru menulis.
Quote Tinot7 27-11-2020 05:48 PM
sarah82 replied at 27-11-2020 05:47 PM
yg buka benang ni pun copy paste dari blog...dan penulis tu tak sedetail pakcik Otto...pakcik Otto ...

iols kopipes drp wiki je
Quote Tinot7 27-11-2020 05:52 PM

The Russian Imperial Romanov family (Emperor Nicholas II, his wife Empress Alexandra and their five children: Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Alexei) were shot and bayoneted to death[1][2] by Communist revolutionaries under Yakov Yurovsky in Yekaterinburg on the night of 16C17 July 1918. Also killed that night were retainers who had accompanied them: notably Eugene Botkin, Anna Demidova, Alexei Trupp and Ivan Kharitonov.[3] The bodies were taken to the Koptyaki forest, where they were stripped and mutilated.[2][4]
In 1919 the White Army commissioned an investigation but were unable to find the unmarked gravesite. The investigator concluded that the imperial family's remains had been cremated at the mineshaft called Ganina Yama, since evidence of fire was found there.[5][[url=]page needed[/url]]
In 1979 and 2007, the remains of the bodies were found in two unmarked graves in a field called Porosenkov Log. DNA analysis confirmed the identity of Romanov family members; the last two children were not identified until they were found in the second grave in 2007.[6]
According to the official state version of the USSR, former Tsar Nicholas Romanov, along with members of his family and retinue, was executed by firing squad, by order of the Ural Regional Soviet, due to the threat of the city being occupied by Whites (Czechoslovak Legion).[7][8] Numerous researchers believe the execution was ordered by Vladimir Lenin, Yakov Sverdlov and Felix Dzerzhinsky.
Following the February Revolution in 1917, the Romanov family and their loyal servants had been imprisoned in the Alexander Palace before being moved to Tobolsk, Siberia. They were next moved to a house in Yekaterinburg, near the Ural Mountains. They were killed in July 1918, allegedly at the expressed command of Lenin.[9] The Bolsheviks initially announced only Nicholas's death,[10][11] although they were told that "the entire family suffered the same fate as its head."[12] The official press release said that "Nicholas Romanov's wife and son have been sent to a secure place."[12] For over eight years,[13] the Soviet leadership maintained a systematic web of disinformation as to the fate of the family,[14] from claiming in September 1919 that they were murdered by left-wing revolutionaries[15] to denying outright in April 1922 that they were dead.[14]
The Soviets finally acknowledged the murders in 1926, following the publication in France of a 1919 investigation by a White migr, but said that the bodies were destroyed and that Lenin's Cabinet was not responsible.[16] The Soviet cover-up of the murders fuelled rumours of survivors.[17] Various Romanov impostors claimed to be one of the children, which drew media attention away from activities of Soviet Russia.[14] From 1938, Joseph Stalin suppressed any discussion regarding the fate of the family.[18]
The burial site was discovered in 1979 by Alexander Avdonin, an amateur sleuth.[19] The Soviet Union did not acknowledge the existence of these remains publicly until 1989, during the glasnost period.[20] The identity of the remains was later confirmed by forensic and DNA analysis and investigation, with the assistance of British experts.
In 1998, 80 years after the executions, the remains of the Romanov family were reinterred in a state funeral in the Peter and Paul Cathedral in Saint Petersburg.[21] The funeral was not attended by key members of the Russian Orthodox Church, who disputed the authenticity of the remains.[22]
In 2007, a second, smaller grave, containing the remains of two Romanov children missing from the larger grave, a boy and a girl, was discovered by amateur archaeologists.[19] However, their remains are kept in a state repository pending further DNA tests.[23] The remains of Alexei and a sister have been confirmed by DNA analysis, but the government was allowing the Church to hold Alexei's remains for additional testing. In 2008, after considerable and protracted legal wrangling, the Russian Prosecutor General's office rehabilitated the Romanov family as "victims of political repressions".[24] A criminal case was opened by the post-Soviet government in 1993, but nobody was prosecuted on the basis that the perpetrators were dead.[23]
Some historians attribute the execution order to the government in Moscow, specifically Sverdlov and Lenin, who wanted to prevent the rescue of the Imperial Family by the approaching Czechoslovak Legion during the ongoing Russian Civil War.[25][26] This is supported by a passage in Leon Trotsky's diary.[27]
An investigation led by Vladimir Solovyov concluded in 2011 that, despite the opening of state archives in the post-Soviet years, no written document has been found that indicates that either Lenin or Sverdlov instigated the orders; however, they did endorse the executions after they occurred.[28][29][30][31] Other sources argue that Lenin and the central Soviet government had wanted to conduct a trial of the Romanovs, with Trotsky serving as prosecutor, but that the local Ural Soviet, under pressure from Left S-Rs and anarchists, undertook the executions on their own initiative due to the approach of the Czechoslovaks.[32] Lenin had close control over the Romanovs, although he ensured his name was not associated with their fate in any official documents.[33]
In 1998 President Boris Yeltsin described the killings of the royal family as one of the most shameful chapters in Russian history.[34][35]

On 22 March 1917, Nicholas, deposed as a monarch and addressed by the sentries as "Nicholas Romanov", was reunited with his family at the Alexander Palace in Tsarskoe Selo. He was placed under house arrest with his family by the Provisional Government, and the family was surrounded by guards and confined to their quarters.[36]
In August 1917, Alexander Kerensky's provisional government, after a failed attempt to send the Romanovs to Britain, which was ruled by Nicholas and Alexandra's mutual first cousin, King George V, evacuated the Romanovs to Tobolsk, Siberia, allegedly to protect them from the rising tide of revolution. There they lived in the former governor's mansion in considerable comfort. After the Bolsheviks came to power in October 1917, the conditions of their imprisonment grew stricter. Talk in the government of putting Nicholas on trial grew more frequent. Nicholas was forbidden to wear epaulettes, and the sentries scrawled lewd drawings on the fence to offend his daughters. On 1 March 1918, the family was placed on soldiers' rations. Their 10 servants were dismissed, and they had to give up butter and coffee.[37]
As the Bolsheviks gathered strength, the government in April moved Nicholas, Alexandra, and their daughter Maria to Yekaterinburg under the direction of Vasily Yakovlev. Alexei, who had severe haemophilia, was too ill to accompany his parents and remained with his sisters Olga, Tatiana, and Anastasia, not leaving Tobolsk until May 1918. The family was imprisoned with a few remaining retainers in Yekaterinburg's Ipatiev House, which was designated The House of Special Purpose (Russian: ҧԧ ѧ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ).

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